The historical significance of the Enlightenment:
For many centuries, various philosophical trends arose and gradually disappeared. Some of them were according to the spirit of their time, others were far ahead of it. One part of them was supported and even the state advertised it, and the other became taboo. There are many cases when prominent thinkers were persecuted and their books were publicly stigmatized as blasphemy. One of the most powerful movements of the 17-18 centuries was the Enlightenment. Beginning in England, it spread rapidly throughout Europe.
Key features of the Enlightenment:
Enlightenment is a path of struggle, waged by representatives of the bourgeoisie with the cultural and political system of the state. The revolutionary classes of society were strongly opposed to the present feudal, authoritarian system. You can also give another idea. Enlightenment is the direction of cultural and philosophical thought associated with the affirmation of capitalist relations. This was the logical stage of development of any state, moving from obsolete foundations to completely new, and industrialists. The main features of the Enlightenment are:
- Democracy, which enhances education in all sections of the population.
- Rationalism, which provides deep confidence in the infinite possibilities of the human brain. The main propagandist of these ideas was Kant.
- Legal education included the dissemination of knowledge about the inalienable rights and freedoms of all people.
A Time Of Enlightenment In European Countries:
The era when rationalism and free thought came first, became key in the formation of modern civilization. Enlightenment is a direction that came into being under the influence of the Scientific Revolution in England. Very soon, modern ideas spread throughout Europe. France and then invaded Russia. Thus, the English Enlightenment became the forerunner of a powerful movement, which greatly changed the worldview of the people. The most influential were the representatives of the Enlightenment in France. This is a country famous for its famous philosophers, who wrote numerous articles. Under the influence of the basic principles of the Enlightenment, the United States Declaration of Independence was accompanied by the French Declaration on Human and Civil Rights.
The Enlightenment Culture:
It is not represent a particular philosophical school. Very often, the opinions of some thinkers and their followers differ significantly and even contradict each other. His critique united the prevailing traditional foundations, moral, ethical, and political ideologies.
As far as the limits of enlightenment are concerned, historians cannot come to the same opinion. Some believe that this movement began in the late 19th century. Others believe it was the middle of the 18th century. The end of this period is usually associated with the death of Voltaire as well as the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars. There is another opinion: the spirit of the Enlightenment was the Great Revolution in England and the Great French Revolution.
Enlightenment in Peter’s day:
The eighteenth-century entered the history of Russia as a time of extraordinary contradictions, which affected all spheres of life. The rise of science and enlightenment was witnessed. The architecture of the temple was secularized, and cultural connections were established with other people. National isolation was overcome. For the first time, there were museums, assemblies, regular print media, and government secular educational institutions.
Enlightenment in the 18th Century:
In the time of Catherine II, much attention was paid to education, culture, and art. The Empress purchased a collection of paintings and sculptures, in which prominent personalities were interviewed, including those who came from other countries. People close to her gave the example of Catherine II. He joined the beautiful and enlightened and organized exhibitions on his estate.
Russian Legal Education:
Questions about the study and teaching of the basics of law arose in Russia in the late 17th century. They were due to the established enlightenment and the establishment of a unified educational system. In 1682, Tsar Fyodor Alekseevich strongly recommended the study of this heritage, both spiritually and legally, but these measures were never implemented. The level of legal literacy in the country remained extremely low.